What is NAT?
Network Address Translation translates your local or private IP addresses to public IP addresses so you can communicate with the internet world.
Why NAT? Because its expensive to buy public IP addresses to each and every computer in a network.

Types of NAT:
Static NAT: This is like one-to-one i.e. your one particular private ip address is always translated to one dedicated public ip address.
Dynamic NAT: This is like many-to-many. Your list of private ip addresses are translated to a pool of public addresses, a public ip dynamically picked from that pool for your private ip addresses.
PAT-Port Address Translation: This is like one to many. Your list of private ip addresses are translated to one public ip address. This uses source port no. of your local network to differentiate individual hosts or computers in your local network. This is also called NAT Overload.

Local router:
f0/0 - desktop
f0/1 - vpcs1
s1/0 - border router

Border router:
s1/0 - local router
s1/1 - isp router

Isp router:
s1/1 - border router and f0/0 - vpcs2

Local router configuration:

Border router configuration:

Isp router Configuration:

Vpcs Configuration:

  • Desktop( MS Loop back Adapter) gets, GW:, DNS:
  • We will use EIGRP in Local and Border routers for routing protocol, so that desktop and vpcs can communicate with Border router via Local router. We will configure them both routers in Autonomous system no 10 so they become neighbours and exchange topology database.

local(config)#router  eigrp 10

  • Border router should be able to communicate with both public and private networks. With Eigrp, border router is already communicating with our local networks. In real world, all local computers connect to border router and border router knows how to get to ISP router, these settings are given by ISP provider. For this lab, we will need to configure border router ourselves, it needs to know the routes. We can use any routing protocol but because we only have one network to be included in the routing table, since is directly connected, lets use static routing.

border(config)#router eigrp 10
border(config)#ip   route
border(config)#ip    default-network

  • I also used 'ip default-network' command so EIGRP can adveterise it to local router.
  • With all the above setup we should be able to succefully ping within our local network and within our public i.e. and network. But we can not ping from local network to public network and thats where NAT comes into picture. NAT will translate our local ip addresses to public ip address so we can communicate with our public networks. We are going to implement NAT overload or PAT in our border router.

border(config)#ip   nat   pool   test  netmast
border(config)# access-list   10   permit
border(config)# ip   nat   inside   source   list   10  pool   test   overload

  • First line creates a pool called 'test' with a range of public addresses. In this case only because we're implementing NAT overload i.e. many-to-one. However, we can use more than one public IP.
  • Second line creates a list of our local addresses identified by no. '10' with 'permit' option.
  • Third line tells NAT to translate inside addresses that are specified in list no. 10 to addresses in pool named 'test', the 'overload' tells NAT to use port no.'s to identify a particular host in the local network.
  • Now we're left configuring interfaces as belonging to inside network or outside network in our border router. In this lab, s1/0 of border router belongs to inside network and s1/1 to the outside.

border(config)#int s1/0
border(config-if)# ip nat inside
border(config-if)#int s1/1
border(config-if)#ip nat outside


Posted by Freeman On 3:27 AM 0 comments
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Yes thats true, save yourself some money if you're planning to write CCNA on/before this dec 1st. However if you're planning to take the test after dec 1st, keep yourself updated with www.gercertify4less.com, plan your preparation and watchout for discounts.

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Posted by Freeman On 5:04 PM 0 comments
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What kind of university are you looking to get into do your masters?
  • Financial AID?:
  • 1.Californian universities DO NOT OFFER any kind of financial aid to international students. They're not even eligible to apply for aid, period!
  • 2.If you want to study in california no matter what but still don't want to pay too much of tuition fee, you might want to consider -
  • HGU - Herguan University : (tuition fee less than $3000, lowest in california, quality wise not as good as SJSU but better now)
And there are others in california but thats the core list above.

Other Universities not in california,  that you might wanna consider that offer financial aid for international students are:
 Well, there are others as well but this is a short list to get you started. Good luck.

Posted by freeman On 12:40 PM 0 comments
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Grab it before the deal expires. Excellent software, installed like a breeze on vista, made a photo slideshow within minutes, cool templates. check it out... Thanks to www.giveawayoftheday.com. To Download go HERE

Here is the story from the site - 
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Posted by Freeman On 2:45 AM 0 comments
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How to install MS loopback Adapter:
  • Open Control Panel, double click 'Add Hardware'
  • In the 'Welcome to add hardware' wizard, click 'next', choose 'install the hardware that i manually select from a list(Advanced)' and then 'next'
  • In the 'Common Hardware Types' list choose 'Network Adapters' and then 'next'
  • Select 'microsoft' in the 'Manufacturer' section and 'microsoft loop back adapter' in the 'Network Adapter' section and then 'next' and 'next'
Open your GNS3 with administrative privilege i.e. right click on it and 'run as administrator'

  • Add a router and a cloud or a computer (computer symbol if you have configured its type as cloud)
  • Rt. click on cloud/computer symbol, 'configure,' in the 'Node Configurator' window select appropriate cloud in the left column (C0). In the 'NIO Ethernet' tab, 'Generic Ethernet NIO(require administrator access)' select 'MS Loopback Adapter' in the drop down list and click 'Add', Apply, OK.
  • Now in the GNS3 window, connect router's fastethernet(f0/0) to the computer/cloud's interface which is our loop back interface.
  • Start the router, console it and enter commands as shown in the below picture.
  • Change the speed to 10mbps using 'speed 10' command cos MS loopback adapter network type is 'ethernet' which is 10mbps. Thats how it worked me.
 Now lets go to - Control Panel->Network Sharing center->(left column) Manage Network Connections.

  • Rt. click on your MS loop back adapter, select properties.
  • Select - internet protocol version 4(TCP/IPv4), and then properties.
  • Fill in the details as show in fig.

  • ping your router ( from windows command prompt.

  • ping your loopback adapter ( from GNS3 router.

  • OR you also could check mac addresses by 'show arp' in command prompt and router console.
P.S. I "disabled my firewall" totally, this is "Must" OR you could also change your firewall rules to accept ICMP requests instead of disabling it totally.
Making this work wasn't easy but I finally found the solution and it worked, you should be able to get this to work too.

      Posted by Freeman On 3:50 PM 0 comments
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      I loved firefox for its features, ease of use, keyboard shortcuts etc etc. I am sure you appreciate firefox too. I use it a lot with about 8+ tabs opened everytime. But I honestly was not happy with the time it takes to load and I decided to search on the internet if there is any browser that is fast just for a backup to firefox.

      And I found K-meleon. This is a open source and absolutely free. People on internet said it is fast and best browser out there and they said it right.
      It definitely is very fast, opens up and loads websites in a blink of an eye. I just cant say enough how fast it does things, you gotta try. I wanted to have this as a backup but it replaced my firefox totally. 

      Take a look at screen shot. I customised the appereance, hid all the toolbars, menubar, bookmarks etc etc. Just so I can have more room for the page. I can access all the options using keyboard shortcuts anyway. This broswer can fit a lot of tabs than firefox.

      You wanna try, here is the direct download.

      Check out its speed in the video. Both firefox and k-meleon are compared with about 8 tabs. If k-meleon were to be loaded with no tabs at all it just loads in no time, its like a dry leaf, very light weight.


      Posted by Freeman On 8:36 PM 0 comments
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      To use your router as a switch:Right click on router, configure and in the slots tab select NM-16esw for slot1 as shown in fig.

        This is a simple topology to verify VTP. topology is as shown in the picture. I also used VPCS as pcs.
        I used routers as switches in gns3, please be aware that gns3 does not support all of the switch commands ex: port security.

        Topology details:
        -sw1 - f1/0 is connected to      sw2 - f1/0 which is our trunk link.

        -sw1 - f1/1 is connected to Vpcs1( Local port: 30000, Remote host:, Remote port:20000)

        -sw2  -  f1/1 is connected to Vpcs2(Local port: 30001, Remote host:, Remote port:20001)

        -sw1 - VLAN 1 IP Address is

        -sw2 - VLAN 1 IP Address is

        -Ping on sw1  and  Ping on sw2 to verify connectivity.

        -After creating VLAN 2 in sw1's VLAN database  it should appear in sw2 as well due to VTP.

        -Assign port f1/1 to VLAN 2 and give a 'no shutdown' command on both switches.

        -Vpcs1 - IP Address is,  GW- (just for syntax).

        -Vpcs2 - IP Address is,  GW- (just for syntax).

        -Ping from Vpcs1 and Ping from Vpcs2 to verify connectivity.

        VLAN 1 is in its own subnet and
        VLAN 2 is in its own subnet
          • Each and every interface must be manually turned on by 'no shutdown' command.
          • We have to set a VTP domain name and ofcourse, same on both the switches. Only then, we will see the Configuration Revision Value and others parameters being updated in the switches.
          Now that the topology is ready, please watch the below videos to see how VTP worked.
          Please watch in full screen for clear view. Videos are playing rather fast, you might want to pause in between to help.

          Part One

          Part Two
          Posted by Freeman On 10:38 PM 0 comments
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          Two things I would like to suggest not to forget.
          1. When you travel within USA, do not forget to check out prices on southwest airlines at Southwest.com.
          We always check out prices on
          kayak.com, priceline.com, orbitz.com, cheaptickets.com, etc etc ( If you're not already aware, there you have the list!)
          Anyway whats the point here is, none of these sites list southwest airlines. And I always found southwest offering the best rates, moreover YOUR BAGS FLY FREE!!! with southwest. Otherwise you'd be paying about $15 for your 1st checked bag and about $25 for your 2nd one. You'd save $40 with southwest if you have two bags. If you do not have bags at all then you have more options to consider, I would also suggest to check FrontierAirlines.com in that case.

          2. When you buy stuff online, especially electronic stuff do not forget to check amazon.com(good for californians) and buy.com. Also, note that Amazon does not tax except KS, KY, ND, WA. So if you're not living in one of them states, you'd pay flat rate, the list price and mostly free shipping if your purchase is above $25. Buy.com taxes only these CA, MA, NY, TN. I am not excluding other sites well known sites out there, it is always good to check prices on deals2buy.com, pricegrabber.com etc search for your product.
          | | edit post
          Posted by Freeman On 7:38 PM 0 comments
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          There are many mp3 players out there for your blog/website like xspf player, flourish player, mixpod etc etc. Some work in firefox only, some work in both firefox and internet explorer but don't playlist. Anyway, with this post you'll be able to setup a working mp3 player for your website/blog.

          1.First, you'll need a file hosting service, where you can store files(mp3 files in this case).
          There are many free file hosting services out there. I will go with  www.skydrive.live.com
          Capacity: 25GB
          Max upload size: 50MB
          Sign in to www.skydrive.live.com with your msn, hotmail or any live ID and upload your mp3 files into your public folder.

          2.Right click on this link and save link as/save target as and save it to your PC...  PLAYER_MP3_MULTI.SWF and then upload it to your skydrive public folder.

          3.We need permanent links for your files in skydrive so they're accessible over the internet all the time through the same links.

          4.Now, as with the most of the file hosting services skydrive doesn't give out a permanent link for a file, so a file which is accesible through a link today may not be accessible tomorrow through the same link.
          But don't worry! Thanks to Tim Acheson, he found a solution for us. Go ahead and get your permanent links to your files HERE

          NOTE: You have to encode your link to use with Tim Acheson's API. From your skydrive copy the "web address." as shown in the figure and go to this SITE TO ENCODE .

          5. You now have the permanent links for your mp3 player and your mp3 files.
          • Sign into your blog and click on customize at top right corner 
          • Click on "Add a gadget", that opens a window, in that look for HTML/JavaScript and click on it.
          • Title: mp3 player, in "Content" copy and paste the following code:  

          • <object data="http://yoursite.com/player_mp3_multi.swf" 
            width="200" height="100" type="application/x-shockwave-flash">
                <param value="http://yoursite.com/player_mp3_multi.swf" 
                <param value="#ffffff" name="bgcolor"/>
                <param value="mp3=http://yoursite.com/song1.mp3 | 
            http://yoursite.com/song2.mp3&amp;title=song1 | song2 
            &amp;autoplay=0&amp;showvolume=1" name="FlashVars"/>

          • In the above code, replace the  "http://yoursite.com/player_mp3_multi.swf" and "http://yoursite.com/song1.mp3" with your actual permanent links of your mp3 player and your mp3 files.
          • Click on save button and you're done
          This mp3 player both in firefox and internet explorer, unlike xspf player or any others I tried and  it is tiny and simple. I have this working mp3 player in my blog-footer, you should be able to have one too.
          Posted by Freeman On 12:31 PM 3 comments
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